An Australia guided by the spirit of the Eureka Tradition as symbolised by the diggers' flag and oath:
"We swear by the Southern Cross to stand truly by each other and fight to defend our rights and liberties"

Eureka Rebellion Timeline (see also Bob Walshe's Eureka Notes)

Licensing system introduced by Lieutenant-Governor La Trobe.
Miners had to pay for a licence to be able to mine for gold.

June 1854
Sir Charles Hotham appointed Lieutenant-Governor. Orders twice-weekly checks of licences.

October 6
James Scobie, a miner, kicked to death. Four men, including James Bentley, owner of the Eureka Hotel, acquitted.

October 17
Meeting of miners angry with decision. Bentley's hotel burned down.

Charles A. Doudiet: Eureka Riot 1854

November 11
Meeting of miners on Bakery Hill. The Ballarat Reform League formed. Aims were universal suffrage, voting by ballot, annual parliaments, payment of parliamentarians, abolition of licensing system, reform of administration of the gold fields, revision of laws relating to Crown land.

November 27
Hotham refused request to release those arrested after attack on Eureka Hotel.

November 28
Confrontation between miners and military.

November 29
Mass meeting of miners at Bakery Hill. Licences burnt. Eureka Flag first raised.

November 30
Several miners arrested after confrontations with police. Meeting of miners. Peter Lalor elected leader. Licence check ordered. Police stoned. About 500 miners swear to uphold their rights. Stockade built.

Charles Doudiet, Swearing Allegiance to the "Southern Cross"
Charles A. Doudiet: Swearing allegiance to the Southern Cross 1854

December 1
Some miners leave to collect food and ammunition. About 200 remain.

December 3
Clash between miners and military and police forces in the early morning — 152 infantry, 30 cavalrymen and 100 mounted and foot police.

The rebellion was crushed within about 15 minutes. The soldiers and police then went wild, destroying tents and property without reason, bayoneting the wounded, and shooting innocent bystanders. The aftermath of the battle led many to describe Eureka as a massacre

December 6
Martial Law proclaimed.

December 7
Gold Fields' Commission appointed.

December 9
Martial Law lifted.

February 1855
Trials of 13 miners. All except one acquitted. Henry Seekamp, the editor of the Ballarat Times sentenced to six months for seditious libel.

Gold Fields' Commission recommends: the abolition of licences, establishment of an export duty on gold, the miner's right to a title deed to his claim, and the opening of Crown land to small land holders.

S.T. Gill
S.T. Gill: Arrival of the Geelong mail, Main Road, Ballarat, May 2nd, 1855


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